F. Baughman, Jr., MD, How Psychiatry Makes 'Patients' Out of Normal Children , Trafford Publishing, 2009.
 A. M. Borissova, T. Tankova, G. Kirilov, L. Dakovska, and R. Kovacheva, "The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients," Int J Clin Pract, Vol. 57, pp. 258 -- 261, 2003.
 B.J. Boucher, N. Mannan, K. Noonan, C.N. Hales, and S.J. Evans, "Glucose Intolerance and Impairment of Insulin Secretion in Relation to Vitamin D Deficiency in East London Asians,"Diabetologia Vol. 38, 1239-- 1245, 1995.
 J.I. Botella-Carretero, F. Alvarez-Blasco, J.J. Villafruela, J.A. Balsa, C. Vazquez, and H.F. Escobar-Morreale, "Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbid obesity," Clin Nutr., Vol. 26 No. 5, pp. 573-80, Oct, 2007.
 M. Blum, B. Dawson-Hughes, G. Dolnikowski, E. Seyoum, and S. Harris, "Vitamin D3 in Fat Tissue," Endocrine Journal, Vol. 33, No. 1, March, 2008.
 J.B.C. Carvalheira, E.B. Ribeiro, E.P. Araujo, R.B. Guimaraes, M.M. Telles, M. Torsoni, J.A.R. Gontijo, L.A. Velloso, M.J.A. Saad, "Selective Impairment of Insulin Signalling in the Hypothalamus of Obese Zucker Rats," Diabetologia, Vol. 46, No. 12, pp. 1629-40, 2003.
 C. Castillo, C. Bogardus, R. Bergman, P. Thuillez, S. Lillioja, "Interstitial insulin concentrations determine glucose uptake rates but not insulin resistance in lean and obese men, J Clin Invest Vol. 93, pp. 10-16, 1994.
 R. Coppari, M. Ichinose, C.E. Lee, A.E. Pullen, C.D. Kenny, R.A. McGovern, V. Tang, S.M. Liu, T. Ludwig, S.C. Chua Jr, B.B. Lowell, and J.K. Elmquist. "The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus: a key site for mediating leptin's effects on glucose homeostasis and locomotor activity," Cell Metab. Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 63-72, Jan, 2005.
 J. Ding, S. Kritchevsky, T.B. Harris, G.L. Burke, R.C. Detrano, M. Szklo, and J.J. Carr, "The Association of Pericardial Fat with Calcified Coronary Plaque," Obesity, Vol. 16, No. 8, pp. 1914--1919, 2008.
 Foss Y.J.,"Vitamin D deficiency is the cause of common obesity," Med Hypotheses, Mar;72(3):314-21, 2009.
 A. Glavaski-Joksimovica, E.W. Rowea, K.Jeftinijaa, C.G. Scanesa, L.L. Andersona,and S. Jeftinijaa, "Effects of Leptin on Intracellular Calcium Concentrations in Isolated Porcine Somatotropes," Neuroendocrinology Vol. 80, pp. 73-82, 2004.
 L.M. Gartner, MD and F.R. Greer, MD, "Prevention of Rickets and Vitamin D Deficiency: New Guidelines for Vitamin D Intake," Pediatrics Vol. 111, No. 4, pp. 908-910, April 2003,
 W.T. Garvey, L. Maianu, J. Zhu, G. Brechtel-Hook, P. Wallace, and A.D. Baron, "Evidence for defect in the trafficking and translocation of GLUT4 transporters in skeletal muscle as cause of human insulin resistance," The Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 101, pp. 2377-2386, 1998.
 K. HNdllsten, H. Yki-JNdrvinen, P. Peltoniemi, V. Oikonen, T. Takala, J. Kemppainen, H. Laine, J. Bergman, G.B. BolliN', J. Knuuti and P. Nuutila, "Insulin- and Exercise-Stimulated Skeletal Muscle Blood Flow and Glucose Uptake in Obese Men," Obesity Research Vol. 11, pp. 257-265, 2003.
 D G Hardie, "AMPK: a Key Regulator of Energy Balance in the Single Cell and the Whole Organism," International Journal of Obesity Vol. 32, pp. 7-12, 2008.
 S. Khosla, MD; L.J. Melton III, MD; M.B. Dekutoski, MD; S.J. Achenbach, MS; A.L. Oberg, PhD; B.L. Riggs, MD, "Incidence of Childhood Distal Forearm Fractures Over 30 Years: A Population-Based Study," JAMA. Vol. 290, pp. 1479-1485, 2003.
 B. Kola, "Role of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in the Control of Appetite," Journal of Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 20, No. 7, pp. 942--951, July, 2008.
 B. Kola, A. B. Grossman, and M. Korbonits, "The Role of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Obesity," Obesity and Metabolism, Korbonits M., Editor, Vol. 36, Front Horm Res. Basel, Karger, pp. 198--211, 2008.
 I. Kojima and M. Nagasawa, "TRPV2: A Calcium-Permeable Cation Channel Regulated by Insulin-Like Growth Factors," Chapter 7 in TRP Ion Channel Function in Sensory Transduction and Cellular Signaling Cascades,, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, 2009.
 J. Kumar, P. Muntner, F.J. Kaskel, S.M. Hailpern, and M.L. Melamed, "Prevalence and Associations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency in US Children: NHANES 2001-2004," Pediatrics, Vol. 124, pp. 362-370, 2009.
 Y. Li, P. Wang, J. Xu, F. Gorelick, H. Yamazaki, N. Andrews, and G. Desir, "Regulation of Insulin Secretion and GLUT4 Tracking by the Calcium Sensor Synaptotagmin VII," Biochem Biophys Res Commun, Vol. 362, No. 3, pp. 658--664, October 26, 2007.
 W. Lim, MD; S. Hong, PhD; R. Nelesen, PhD; J.E. Dimsdale, MD, "The Association of Obesity, Cytokine Levels, and Depressive Symptoms With Diverse Measures of Fatigue in Healthy Subjects," Arch Intern Med. Vol. 165, pp. 910-915, 2005.
 S. Liu, Y. Song, E. Ford, J. E. Manson, J. E. Buring, and P. M. Ridker, "Dietary Calcium, Vitamin D, and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older U.S. Women,"
 A. Martia, F.J. Novob, E. Martinez-Ansoa, M. Zaratieguib, M. Aguadoa and J.A. Martineza, "Leptin Gene Transfer into Muscle Increases Lipolysis and Oxygen Consumption in White Fat Tissue inob/obMice" Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 246, No. 3, 29 pp. 859-862, May 1998.
 L. Maximilian Buja, MD, "Does Atherosclerosis Have an Infectious Etiology?", Circulation 94:872-873, 1996.
 Y. Minokoshi, Y.B. Kim, O.D. Peroni, L.G. Fryer, C. Muller, D. Carling, and B.B. Kahn, "Leptin stimulates fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase," Nature. Vol. 17, pp. 339-43, Jan. 2002.
 P.D. Mountjoy and G.A. Rutter, "Glucose Sensing by Hypothalamic Neurones and Pancreatic Islet Cells: AMPle Evidence for Common Mechanisms?," Experimental Physiology, December, 2006.
 A.W. Norman, J.B. Frankel, A.M. Heldt, and G.M. Grodsky, "Vitamin D Deficiency Inhibits Pancreatic Secretion of Insulin," Science, Vol 209, Issue 4458, 823-825, 1980.
 S Obici, BB Zhang, G Karkanias, and L Rossetti, "Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for inhibition of glucose production." Nat Med Vol. 8, pp. 1376-82, 2002.
 E.O. Ojuka, T.E. Jones, L.A. Nolte, M. Chen, B.R. Wamhoff, M. Sturek, and J.O. Holloszy, "Regulation of GLUT4 biogenesis in muscle: evidence for involvement of AMPK and Ca2+," Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Vol. 282, NO. 5, May 2002.
 A.L. Olson and J. E. Pessin, "Structure, function, and regulation of Mammalian facilitative glucose transporter gene family," Annual Reviews Nutrition, Vol. 16, pp. 235-256, 1996.
 S. Park, T.L. Scheffler, A.M. Gunawan, H. Shi, C. Zeng, K.M. Hannon, A.L. Grant, and D.E. Gerrard, "Chronic elevated calcium blocks AMPK-induced GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle," Am J Physiol Cell Physiol Vol. 296,pp. C106-C115, 2009.
 M. A. Pereira, D. R. Jacobs, Jr, L. Van Horn, M. L. Slattery, A. I. Kartashov, and D. S. Ludwig, "Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study." JAMA Vol. 287, pp. 2081 -- 2089, 2002.
 U. Ravnskov, Fat and Cholesterol are Good for You! G.B. Publishing, Sweden, 2009.
 J.P. Reis, D. von Muhlen,E.R. Miller, 3rd, E.D. Michos, and L.J. Appel, "Vitamin D Status and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the United States Adolescent Population," Pediatrics, August 3, 2009.
 K. Stefikova, V. Spustova, K. Sebekova, and R. Dzurik, "Magnesium deficiency impairs rat soleus muscle glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity." Biomed Experts, 1992.
 W.W. Winder, "Energy-sensing and signaling by AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle," J Appl Physiol.Vol. 91, No. 3, pp. 1017-1028, Sep., 2001.
 R.L. Wolf, J.A. Cauley, C.E. Baker, R.E. Ferrell, "Factors Associated with Calcium Absorption Efficiency in Pre-and Perimenopausal Women," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,, Vol. 72, pp. 466--471, August, 2000.
 M. B. Zemel, and S.L. Miller, "Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Adiposity and Obesity Risk," Nutr Rev. Vol. 62, No. 4, pp. 125--131, April, 2004.
 M. B. Zemel, H. Shi, B. Greer, D. Dirienzo and P. C. Zemel, "Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium," The FASEB Journal, Vol. 14, pp. 1132-1138, 2000.
 J.M. Zigman and J.K. Elmquist, "Minireview: From Anorexia to Obesity -- The Yin and Yang of Body Weight Control" Endocrinology, Vol. 144, No. 9, pp. 3749-3756, 2003.
The Obesity epidemic: is the Metabolic Syndrome a Nutritional Deficiency Disease? by Stephanie Seneff is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License.